Adaptation issues required increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  The amount of the DNNs determined by each country will determine that country`s objectives. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law, for lack of specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  No mechanism obliges a country to set a specific emissions target before a given date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States formally withdrew from the deal the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the deal after his inauguration.  While the expanded transparency framework is universal, the framework, together with the global inventory to be held every five years, aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish between the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement includes provisions to improve the capacity building framework.  The agreement recognises the different circumstances of some countries and notes in particular that the technical expert review for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops an initiative to enhance transparency to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was created with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for action on climate change from 2020.
The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not declared their intention to leave the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as “Annex 1” countries, to prepare national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.