NAFTA has also used a new era of free trade agreements, which have multiplied as World Trade Organization (WTO) global trade negotiations, and has played a pioneering role in integrating labour and environmental provisions, which have become increasingly broad in subsequent free trade agreements [PDF]. The USMCA has put in place stricter enforcement mechanisms than the original agreement, which has led the AFL-CIO, the largest collection of U.S. unions, to support the pact – a rare endorsement from a group that has strongly criticized NAFTA. In 2008, Canadian exports to the United States and Mexico totaled $381.3 billion and imports $245.1 billion.  According to a 2004 paper by University of Toronto economist Daniel Trefler, NAFTA provided Canada with a significant net benefit in 2003, with long-term productivity increasing by up to 15 per cent in the sectors that experienced the largest tariff reductions.  While the decline in low-productivity jobs has reduced employment (up to 12 per cent of existing jobs), these job losses have lasted less than a decade; Overall, unemployment has declined in Canada since the legislation was passed. Trefler commented on the compromise, saying that the crucial trade policy issue was “how free trade can be implemented in an industrialized economy so that the long-term benefits and short-term adjustment costs borne by workers and others are recognized.”  Perot eventually lost the election, and the winner, Bill Clinton, supported NAFTA, which came into effect on January 1, 1994. According to a 2012 study on tariff reductions on NAFTA, trade with the United States and Mexico increased by only 11% in Canada, compared to a 41% increase in the United States and 118% in Mexico. :3 In addition, the United States and Mexico benefited more from the rate reduction, with an increase in social benefits of 0.08% and 1.31%, with Canada recording a decrease of 0.06%.
:4 Not only is none of these countries a nafta member, but none of them have a free trade agreement with Mexico`s experience with NAFTA, it was not all bad. The country has become a hub of automotive production, with General Motors (GM), Fiat Chrysler (FCAU), Nissan, Volkswagen, Ford Motor (F), Honda (HMC), Toyota (TM) and dozens of others operating in the country – not to mention hundreds of parts manufacturers. These industries, as well as others, owe some of their growth to more than four times the real growth in foreign direct investment in the United States (FDI) in Mexico since 1993.